Glossary

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Module 8 - Glossary

Allelic frequency: the proportion of alleles within the population 

Allele:  a version of a gene 

Allopatric speciation: the formation of new species when a geographical barrier is present 

Aneuploidy: an abnormal number of chromosomes

Bottleneck effect:  the change of allelic frequency that occurs when a random portion of the population is killed due to a chance event

Emigration: the movement of alleles out of a population 

Founder effect: the change of allelic frequency that occurs when a small group of individuals leave one population and start a new population

Gene flow: the movement of alleles between two populations

Genetic diversity: the total number of different phenotypes within a population

Genetic drift: the change of allelic frequency due to chance events

Immigration: the movement of alleles into a poulation

Mutation: the changing of a structure of a gene, resulting in a variant form

Natural selection: the change in allelic frequency that occurs when a selection pressure acts on a population, causing one trait to become selectively advantageous. 

Phenotype: the observable characteristics of an organism

Polyploidy: an extra set(s) of chromosomes

Pre-isolation mechanisms: factors that prevent two populations from mating 

Post-isolation mechanisms: factors that prevent two populations from producing fertile offspring 

Selection pressure: an agent that acts on a population and causes differential survival and reproduction within individuals of the population

Selective breeding: the change in allelic frequency that occurs when humans breed together individuals with desirable traits

Speciation: the formation of new species

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